GitLab CE: Continuous Integration, Jobs and Runners

NWS GitLab CE Hosting Zur Verwaltung von auf git basierenden Projekten bietet GitLab CE neben Issue Tracker und Wiki auch eine Continuous Integration (CI) Umgebung. Pro Projekt kann eine CI-Konfiguration mit Job Definitionen gesetzt werden, welche nach jedem Commit von sogenannten GitLab Runner ausgeführt werden.  Die klassische CI-Pipeline (vom Build bis zum Deploy) kann mit Hilfe von Stages abgebildet werden. Die CI-Konfiguration wird als Datei (.gitlab-ci.yml) im Projekt mit abgespeichert.


Im folgendem ein kleines Beispiel welches einen GitLab Runner mit Docker Executor verwendet:


image: debian:latest
  - build
  - test
  - deploy

  stage: build
  script: 'ping -c 4'

  stage: test
  script: 'ping -c 4'

  stage: deploy
  script: 'echo "deploying"'

  - 'echo "do some housekeeping"'


Mit jedem Commit im Projekt werden die definierten Stages build, test und deploy und deren Jobs durchlaufen und von GitLab CE natürlich auch schön visualisiert wird.

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GitLab Runner können verschiedene Executor haben, beginnend mit der klassischen Shell über Parallels hinzu Docker und Kubernetes. Wem das alles zu viel ist kann auch unsere vorkonfiguriertes GitLab CE mit Runner ausprobieren oder bei unserem Manged Services nach einem maßgeschneidertem Angebot nachfragen.

Achim Ledermueller

Autor: Achim Ledermueller

Der Exil Regensburger kam 2012 zu NETWAYS, nachdem er dort sein Wirtschaftsinformatik Studium beendet hatte. In der Managed Services Abteilung ist unter anderem für die Automatisierung des RZ-Betriebs und der Evaluierung und Einführung neuer Technologien zuständig.

NETWAYS Web Services: GitLab CE Hosting

This entry is part 1 of 6 in the series NETWAYS Web Services

GitLab CE HostingGitLab CE (Community Edition) ist die frei verfügbare Variante von GitLab, welche alle wichtigen Features von GitLab in einer Open Source Version vereint. GitLab bietet eine webbasierte Oberfläche für Softwareprojekte auf Basis der Versionsverwaltung git. Dazu verfügt GitLab über diverse Management und Bug-Tracking-Funktionalitäten, sowie mit GitLab CI ein System zur kontinuierlichen Integration.

NETWAYS bietet das Hosting von GitLab CE in unserer NETWAYS Web Services an. Wir übernehmen hier nicht nur die Installation und Konfiguration, sondern auch den kompletten Betrieb inkl. regelmäßiger Updates auf die aktuellste Version. Unser Angebot wird verteilt über zwei Rechenzentren in Nürnberg gehostet und betrieben. Somit stellen wir einen sicheren und zuverlässigen Service an einem (sehr schönen) Standort in Deutschland zur Verfügung.

GitLab CE

Alle GitLab CE Instanzen laufen isoliert in einem eigenen Container und alle nötigen Ressourcen sind exklusiv für Ihr Projekt reserviert. Und bei uns sind die GitLab Runner schon mit dabei!

Und wie gewohnt bei NWS – Sie können GitLab CE bei uns 30 Tage kostenfrei testen. Jetzt schnell anmelden!


Martin Krodel

Autor: Martin Krodel

Der studierte Volljurist leitet bei NETWAYS die Sales Abteilung und berät unsere Kunden bei ihren Monitoring- und Hosting-Projekten. Privat reist er gerne durch die Weltgeschichte und widmet sich seinem ständig wachsenden Fuhrpark an Apple Hardware.

Contributing to projects on GitHub

GitHub Logo

Today I want to share my workflow for contributing to projects hosted on GitHub because I believe it works very well for me and I regularly contribute to various projects. Of course most of this also applies to other hosted Git platforms like GitLab. It will not involve any Git magic as there are other posts to do that. So let’s use adding a check command to Icinga 2 as my example.

The obvious first step is finding the Git repository for the project and reading contribution guidelines because there are some projects which aren’t hosted on GitHub and some have additional requirements like submitting an issue in addition to a pull request. You should always familiarize yourself with and stick to those policies if you want your pull request to be accepted. For Icinga 2 there currently aren’t any additional project-specific guidelines.

Your next step is to create a fork on GitHub and clone the repository. So in the GitHub web interface click on “Fork” and select your own account (or company account as long as you are allowed to push). Once you’ve forked the repository you can check out a local copy using the following command:

git clone

Afterwards you should add another “remote” for the original Git repository in order to be able to update your own repository with changes from the upstream project:

cd icinga2/
git remote add upstream

After these initial steps you can create a Git branch for your feature or bug fix. Using the “master” branch for pull requests is strongly discouraged because things tend to get complicated once you have more than one pull request. Another recommendation is to use branch names that match the upstream repository’s style. This however is not a hard requirement:

git checkout -b feature/expand-check-foo

This also automatically switches to the newly-created branch which means you can now start to edit files for your pull request. Once you’re done you can add them to the Git index and create a commit. Typically upstream projects have guidelines for this, so do not forget to include documentation, make only one commit out of your work (perhaps by squashing) and so on.

vi itl/plugins-contrib.d/network-components.conf
vi doc/
git add itl/plugins-contrib.d/network-components.conf doc/
git commit -m "ITL: expanded check foo"

Afterwards push your commit to your forked repository and then create your pull request using the GitHub webinterface:

git push -u origin feature/expand-check-foo

When creating the pull request make sure to provide a detailed description of your changes and the reason why you feel that your pull request should be merged. Keep the setting checked to allow edits from maintainers. Depending on the project make sure to reference any related issues, fill in their pull request template or do whatever else they require for pull requests.

GitHub pull request

Typically once a pull request is created automated tests will be run and a review process by the project team will start, so it’s possible that you’ll be asked to make changes before your pull request is accepted. If this happens simply edit your branch to fix whatever problems were found during the review, amend your commit and force push it to your fork. This will also automatically update your pull request but you might want to provide a comment for the pull request as to what has changed:

vi doc/
git add doc/
git commit --amend -m "ITL: expanded check foo"
git push -f

Another commonly requested change is that you rebase your branch before the pull request is accepted. This usually happens when significant changes were made to the upstream repository while your pull request was waiting to be merged. In order to rebase your branch the following commands should be all you need, however in some cases you may also have to manually resolve conflicts:

git pull --rebase upstream master
git push -f

And of course you will sometimes want to create additional pull requests. For these make sure to start with a new branch based on the upstream repository:

git checkout master
git pull upstream master
git checkout -b fix/check-bar
git push -u origin fix/check-bar

So, this is it, this is my basic workflow for easy contributions on GitHub. I hope it helps you to get involved with your favorite projects and your fixes and features to get upstream. If you prefer to do all step in the command line, you can have a look at GitHub’s command-line wrapper for git hub. If you need more general Git knowledge I recommend the Git book and our training. If you need a GitLab system to play around, have a look at our NWS platform.

Dirk Götz

Autor: Dirk Götz

Dirk ist Red Hat Spezialist und arbeitet bei NETWAYS im Bereich Consulting für Icinga, Nagios, Puppet und andere Systems Management Lösungen. Früher war er bei einem Träger der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung als Senior Administrator beschäftigt und auch für die Ausbildung der Azubis verantwortlich.

Authentication with OAuth

It’s pretty safe to say, that everyone using the web has already made an account for some website. For the broad masses the most common ones would be social media sites like facebook, youtube and twitter. Then there are also online shopping platforms like e-bay and amazon, and more techie orientated pages like stack overflow and all sorts of version control repositories.
(And of course various others for anything and everything else…)

Third party applications often allow you to sign in with your account from another website.

The good thing is, that you don’t need to create a separate account for every single one, but are offered the possibility to just sign in with an account you created for a different service.

The page for which you want to use a different account needs to request data from the original website and use it to authenticate the user (without their input).
In order to give both the requesting website and the user assurance that the data will be safe and reliable some sort of standardisation is required.

Most commonly used is the open standard for authorisation OAuth.
With OAuth it is possible for users to grant access to their information from a certain website without giving away their credentials.

This is what it looks like when the user reviews the permissions.

In order for the third party application to obtain specific information about a user, it has to request an access token from the authorisation server, and when the user grants the permission, use that token to access the resources from the website.

In our specific case we want users to be able to log in to Icinga Exchange with their GitHub accounts.

If you now also want to integrate GitHub on your website and/or see how it’s done: they have a detailed tutorial here.

Jennifer Mourek

Autor: Jennifer Mourek

Jennifer hat sich nach Ihrem Abitur erst einmal die große weite Welt angesehen, ehe es sie für Ihre Ausbildung zur Fachinformatikerin für Anwendungsentwicklung ab September 2016 nach Nürnberg zu NETWAYS verschlagen hat. Die Lieblingsfreizeitaktivitäten der gebürtigen Steigerwalderin sind das Zocken, Bouldern und sich mit Freunden und Kollegen auf gemütliche Spiele- und Filmabende zu treffen.

Monthly Snap November > Icinga 2 Director, OSMC, HW group Updates, AVTECH, Request Tracker, Foreman, Ceph, Git, Icinga 2 API, Braintower

SnspIn November, Thomas Gelf began with announcing the Icinga Director 1.2.0 release.

Isabel informs about new HW group Updates and the new Firmware for AVTECH Room Alert 3E.

Then Julia H. said thank you to our OSMC sponsors and wrote about why to join the OSMC Hackathon

Jennifer told us why we visualize while Markus Waldmüller presents the auto-provisioning with Foreman

Furthermore, Michael reviewed the PuppetConf in San Diego and told why Git Squash is magic.

Christian announced our availability of Request Tracker starter packages and Martin K. informed what to know about the Puppet Enterprise 3.8 End of Life

Towards the end of November, Tobias gave an Icinga 2 API Cheat Sheet, while Tim gave a Ceph training review.

Finally, Isabel wrote about the new Braintower Software and Updates.



Julia Hackbarth

Autor: Julia Hackbarth

Julia ist seit 2015 bei NETWAYS. Sie hat im September ihre Ausbildung zur Kauffrau für Büromanagement gestartet. Etwas zu organisieren macht ihr großen Spaß und sie freut sich auf vielseitige Herausforderungen. In ihrer Freizeit spielt Handball eine große Rolle: Julia steht selbst aktiv auf dem Feld, übernimmt aber auch gerne den Part als Schiedsrichterin.

It’s magic: git squash

training_gitA common technique for feature development with Git is to start with a new feature branch. You’ll continue to add and commit changes into that branch and at some point in time you want to merge the many work-in-progress commits into one. The Git terminology references that as “squash“.

Another common best practice is to use the Git forking model you are probably familiar with on GitHub. You’ll fork your own repository, start adding a new Icinga 2 ITL CheckCommand definition, later on you are adding the missing documentation bits. Then you’ll send a pull request to the upstream repository. Developers will review your changes and probably ask you to rebase and squash your commits into one commit.

Let’s just try that.

michi@mbmif ~/coding/icinga/icinga2 (master) $ git checkout -b feature/itl-checkcommand-13079

<change, add, commit>

michi@mbmif ~/coding/icinga/icinga2 (feature/itl-checkcommand-13079) $ git l
* ed6a68f- (HEAD -> feature/itl-checkcommand-13079) Docs: Fix phrasing (5 minutes ago) 
* ce90e16- Add documentation for logfiles (5 minutes ago) 
* 5a31d9e- Add CheckCommand "logfiles" (6 minutes ago) 
* dc29924- (origin/master, origin/HEAD, master) Deprecate the client 'bottom up' mode w/ node update-config (2 hours ago) 

Now I want to merge that feature branch back to the master. Our development guidelines require me to squash the three commits first.

Generally speaking you can use the interactive “git rebase -i” command here. It requires an additional parameter about the commits we will be editing, counting from HEAD back in the history. In my case I want to edit HEAD minus 3 commits.

The interactive mode will open the configured editor, vim in my case.

michi@mbmif ~/coding/icinga/icinga2 (feature/itl-checkcommand-13079) $ git rebase -i HEAD~3

pick 5a31d9e Add CheckCommand "logfiles"
pick ce90e16 Add documentation for logfiles
pick ed6a68f Docs: Fix phrasing

# Rebase dc29924..ed6a68f onto dc29924 (3 commands)
# Commands:
# p, pick = use commit
# r, reword = use commit, but edit the commit message
# e, edit = use commit, but stop for amending
# s, squash = use commit, but meld into previous commit
# f, fixup = like "squash", but discard this commit's log message
# x, exec = run command (the rest of the line) using shell
# d, drop = remove commit
# These lines can be re-ordered; they are executed from top to bottom.
# If you remove a line here THAT COMMIT WILL BE LOST.
# However, if you remove everything, the rebase will be aborted.
# Note that empty commits are commented out

Git informs us about the possible options here. I could just use “edit” which iterates over the commits, stops for amending the commit message and/or the commit changes itself.

I want to squash the commits. This requires the base commit (usually the first one) to stay on “pick” while the others are changed to “squash”.

pick 5a31d9e Add CheckCommand "logfiles"
squash ce90e16 Add documentation for logfiles
squash ed6a68f Docs: Fix phrasing

This will squash the commits one by one onto the last picked one. Save the changes and continue.

# This is a combination of 3 commits.
# This is the 1st commit message:
Add CheckCommand "logfiles"

# This is the commit message #2:

Add documentation for logfiles

# This is the commit message #3:

Docs: Fix phrasing

# Please enter the commit message for your changes. Lines starting
# with '#' will be ignored, and an empty message aborts the commit.
# Date:      Wed Nov 23 17:19:55 2016 +0100
# interactive rebase in progress; onto dc29924
# Last commands done (3 commands done):
#    squash ce90e16 Add documentation for logfiles
#    squash ed6a68f Docs: Fix phrasing
# No commands remaining.
# You are currently editing a commit while rebasing branch 'feature/itl-checkcommand-13079' on 'dc29924'.
# Changes to be committed:
#       modified:   doc/
#       modified:   itl/plugins-contrib.d/logmanagement.conf

Edit the commit message (comments starting with “#” will be ignored) and make it a good one (also something you learn in the training session ;)).

Add CheckCommand "logfiles"

refs #13079

Save and continue.

[detached HEAD f1445eb] Add CheckCommand "logfiles"
 Date: Wed Nov 23 17:19:55 2016 +0100
 3 files changed, 8 insertions(+)
Successfully rebased and updated refs/heads/feature/itl-checkcommand-13079.

Verify the changed commit history.

michi@mbmif ~/coding/icinga/icinga2 (feature/itl-checkcommand-13079) $ git l
* f1445eb- (HEAD -> feature/itl-checkcommand-13079) Add CheckCommand "logfiles" (3 minutes ago) 
* dc29924- (origin/master, origin/HEAD, master) Deprecate the client 'bottom up' mode w/ node update-config (2 hours ago) 

When you are updating your remote repository you’ll need to override the remote history with the local history. Be careful when using “-f”!

michi@mbmif ~/coding/icinga/icinga2 (feature/itl-checkcommand-13079) $ git push -f origin feature/itl-checkcommand-13079

Voilà – our Git commit history is now rebased and squashed.

This example works in a similar fashion with a forked repository on GitHub, thus requiring you to update your PR then.

Hint: I’m using Git shell integration as well Git aliases here (“git l”). We’ll dive into these topics in our Git training too 🙂

$ git config --list | grep 'alias.l'
alias.l=log --graph --pretty=format:'%Cred%h%Creset-%C(yellow)%d%Creset %s %Cgreen(%cr) %C(bold blue)<%an>%Creset' --abbrev-commit --date=relative --
Michael Friedrich

Autor: Michael Friedrich

Michael ist seit vielen Jahren Icinga Developer und hat sich Ende 2012 in das Abenteuer NETWAYS gewagt. Ein Umzug von Wien nach Nürnberg mit der Vorliebe, österreichische Köstlichkeiten zu importieren - so mancher Kollege verzweifelt an den süchtig machenden Dragee-Keksi. Oder schlicht am österreichischen Dialekt der gerne mit Thomas im Büro intensiviert wird ("Jo eh."). Wenn sich Michael mal nicht im Monitoring-Portal helfend meldet, arbeitet er am nächsten LEGO-Projekt oder geniesst das schöne Nürnberg. Oder - at an Icinga Camp near you 😉